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【エッセイ】 Galyna SHEVTSOVA

 Beam-pillar and blockhouse wooden construction systems in
​ the world: the areas of domination and mixing zones

1. Excluding south and south-west part of Ukraine that comes to the beam-pillar and blockhouse mixing geographical area, see below.
2. Nevertheless we need to mind that in China, Korea and Indo-China region the beam-pillar system is usually used in symbiotic with the massive masonry and ground base that is coming from initial historical China building traditions [2] that is absolutely differs from Japanese case. 
3. The same logic also could be applied for North and Eastern Europe wooden architecture formation process where climatic preference of blockhouse system leads to the formation of compact blockhouse cage combinatory architecture most brightly seen at the examples of wooden churches were blockhouse cages obtain vertical tops of multiplied types although vertical tendency of the exterior and inner space is immanent for Christian architecture in general.
4. Further there also will be shown the possibility of vice-versa support form placement where the blockhouse parts of the building are posed on beam-pillar base as it can be observed in the examples of Caucasus rural dwellings (see pic. 10).
5. Precisely speaking, the Ukrainian Transcarpathian type of wooden churches having historical source at Romanian Maramuresh province type of wooden churches so they can be examined like entire phenomena.
6. Here is maybe can be noticed some similarity with Japanese itaazekura system.
7. So it becomes possible to compare them with blockhouse octagon-onsquare outwork shapes of Ukrainian churches’ towers (see pic. 4-a).
8. The evidence of this fact was proved in the fundamental work of L. Sumbadze “Architecture of Georgian folk habitation Darbaza” [6].
9. The similar is glhatun for Armenian and karadam for Azerbaijan. There are also witnesses of this type dwelling spreading at Middle and Central Asia regions [6].
10. The walls of darbaza are mostly masonry, but also some examples of old houses with blockhouse walls exist [6].
11. L. Sumbadze argues this shape relativity to the Arian Zoroaster temples traditions finally transmitted also to the Caucasus stone Orthodox churches’ shape having central octagonal opened into the interior tower supported by fore pillars of square layout [6]. It can be recognized that his ideas are quite credible. Further it is also possible to suggest the relativity of gvirgvini’s shape with mentioned above octagonon-square blockhouse tower space-constructive shape of Ukrainian wooden church [26, 36].
12. Where beam-pillar is usually placed on the top of blockhouse.
13. It also can be mentioned here the credible possibility of wooden prototypes existing of masonry European Gothic and Mediterranean Classical Antiquity Order systems that also obviously were based on the beam-pillar principles. 
14. It is also have to point that nevertheless of some initial relation between Ukrainian and Russian wooden churches, they are principally different not only with their design but also with their space-constructive shape.
15. As it was mentioned above, similar homogeny hybridized form of beam-pillar-blockhouse constructions can be sometimes seen in the wooden buildings all over the world without direct connection of climatic or seismic factors. But in Norway it was shaped a unique extremely strong for shaking hybridized variation of wooden building system where blockhouse filling elements are placed inside the beam-pillar frame in the unusual vertical but not horizontal dimension.
16. Some information about so called palisade churches construction probably can provide the unique preserved example of stumpy Greensted palicade church of 9th-11th c., from Essex, England (pic. 15-c).
17. Directly speaking there we can observe the pillar like working elements created with blockhouse system methods.
18. Reposed to the block-pillars lengthwise beams create an additional basement to the roof-trusses allowing the erection of much higher vaults [39].


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